IDC publishes a software taxonomy every year. It shows a great overview of the various types of software, focused on the enterprise. The link shows the table of contents. There is a lot information and I thought it might be easier to visualize in a mindmap. This is the mindmap of application development and deployment software (more to follow). Please do not copy or distribute this image.
Some of the terminology might be intimidating. However, to be fair to IDC you will need to purchase their report or search for more information.